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Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) and its process of implementation

All the economic activities in villages are closely related to seasons. During certain seasons, there is enough demand for labour. At certain other times, there is little demand for labour. As a result, the rural poor and landless laborers donot get regular paid-work throughout the year. Most of the time they remain unemployed or under-employed. Most of the time they remain unemployed. So the new scheme called Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana(SGRY) is the result of the merger of the two earlier schemes namely,the Employment Assurance Scheme(EAS) and the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY).

Alleviation of poverty, reduction of inequalities, improvement of nutritional levels and more significantly the maintenance of a high economic growth rate are not possible without the efficient use of the existing available human resources. Hence, providing wage-employment to all the rural poor by involving them in the manual and unskilled worked work is the primary objective of the SGRY.

Agricultural wage earners, non-agricultural unskilled wage earners, marginal farmers, women, member of SCs/STs, parents of the child laborer and handicapped children, adult children of handicapped parents, etc. shall get preference under this scheme. The SGRY also provides special safeguards for the weaker sections and women.

The central Government will provide food grains and cash component to the states and Union Territories as per the set criteria in order to generate additional wage-employment. The SGRY programme is being implemented through the Panchayati Raj Institutions.(PRIs).

The objectives of the SGRY

The SGRY has two fold objectives:
1. The primary objective is to provide additional and supplementary wage-employment in all rural areas and thereby provide food security and improve nutritional levels.
2. To create durable community, social and economic assets and effect infrastructural development in rural area in the long run.

The SGRY provide

The wages under the SGRY programme are paid partly as food- grains and partly in cash. But at least 25% of the wages has to be paid in cash. Under the SGRY, both the skilled and the unskilled labour are paid minimum wages fixed by the state authorities. Moreover both men and women workers are paid equal wages.

Food grains are given as parts of wages under the SGRY to the rate of 5kg. per man-days it may do so within the existing state allocation, subject to a minimum of 25% of the wage to be paid in cash.

Under this programme, the distribution of food grains to the workers is made either through PDS/Gram panchayat or any other agency appointed by the state government. Distribution of food grains is made to the workers, most preferably, at the work site. All the rural poor particularly those who are in need of wage-employment and also desire to do manual and unskilled work in and around their village or habitant, are entitled for the benefit under the SGRY. The SGRY, however, provides special safeguards for the weaker sections and woman. According, specific allocations are made for them on the following pattern.

1. 22.5% of the annual allocation (inclusive of food-grains) of the District Panchayat and of the intermediate panchayats is earmarked for individual/group beneficiary schemes of SC/ST families living Below the Poverty Line (BPL).
2. 50% of the allocation of the village panchayat share is earmarked for the creation of need based village infrastructure in SC/ST habitations/wards.
3. 30% of employment opportunities are reserved for women.

The SGRY is implemented at two levels. At the first level activities are implemented by the District and Intermediate panchayat and the second one by the village panchayat. We shall now discuss works to be taken up at each level.

Works to implemented under SGRY by District and Intermediate Panchayat:

In formulating the Annual Action Plan and while taking up works, District panchayat/DRDA and Intermediate panchayats (Panchayat Samati) are expected to given priority to the following types of works:

(I) Soil and moisture conservation.
(II) Minor irrigation.
(III) Rejuvenation of drinking water sources.
(IV) Augmentation of ground water and traditional water harvesting structures.
(V) Desilting of village tanks/ponds.
(VI) Construction of rural link roads, farm roads linking agricultural fields.
(VII) Drainage works.
(VIII) Aforestation.

In addition, works that result in the creation of durable socio-economic assets such as schools, kitchen sheds for schools, dispensaries, community centers, Panchayat ghars, hats(market), etc. are also to be taken up during the first phase of the SGRY. On the contrary, the following works shall not to be taken up under the SGRY programme:
(A) Building for religious purposes such as temples, mosques,
     gurudwaras, churches, etc. .
(B) Building monuments, memorials, statutes, idols, arch gates, welcome
(C) Building bridges.
(D) Building for higher secondary school.
(E) Building for cottages, and
(F) Black topping of roads.

Works to be implemented at the Village Panchayat Level:
Emphasis in on the creation of durable productive community assets. Therefore, priority is to be given to the following works:

(I) Infrastructural support for the SGRY.
(II) Infrastructure required for supporting agricultural activities in the village panchayats.
(III) Community information, health as well as internal and link roads.
(IV) Desilting and renovation of traditional village tanks/ponds.

At the village panchayat level, emphasis is not only on the purely material oriented works but also on the purely material oriented works but also on the labour intensive works. It has to be kept in mind that the works taken up are sustainable and cost effective
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